Four-dimensional electron microscopy

The discovery of the electron over a century ago and the realization of its dual character have given birth to one of the two most powerful imaging instruments: the electron microscope. The electron microscope’s ability to resolve three-dimensional (3D) structures on the atomic scale is continuing to affect different fields, including materials science and biology. In this Review, we highlight recent developments and inventions made by introducing the fourth dimension of time in electron microscopy.

Published in


Authored by

Zewail, A. H.

Publication date

Friday, April 9, 2010
Resource category
Technique category