Ease of Use

The table below begins to capture the main usage features of each technique.

  EELS EDS XPS Auger CL
Probe → Signal e- → e- e-\(\gamma\) \(\gamma\) → e- e- → e- e-\(hv\)
Sample requirements
  • Thin (<1 – 2 mfp) for best results
  • Semi-thin to bulk
  • Flat surface for bulk
  • Bulk – Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible
  • Flat surface
  • Semi-thin to bulk – UHV compatible
  • Flat surface for bulk
  • Non-charging
  • Semi-thin to bulk
  • Optically active
Technique
  • Requires setup of electron optics
  • Minimal setup
  • UHV handling
  • UHV handling
  • Methods to reduce charging
  • Requires setup of a spectrometer
Composition analysis No standards for analysis Compare to standards N/A
Chemical analysis Fingerprinting/energy shift None Fingerprinting Limited Depends on material